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Dyslexia: A Brief History of Its Discovery and Understanding, Along with Resources

Dyslexia is a learning disorder that affects reading, writing, and spelling. The history of dyslexia dates back to the late 19th century, when a German physician named Adolph Kussmaul first used the term "word blindness" to describe a condition in which individuals had difficulty reading.


In the early 20th century, the Scottish ophthalmologist James Hinshelwood developed a method of treating word blindness that involved training individuals to recognize words using visual clues. Hinshelwood's work laid the foundation for later research into dyslexia.



In the 1930s and 1940s, Samuel T. Orton, a neuropsychiatrist, and Anna Gillingham, a teacher, developed an approach to teaching reading and spelling that later became known as the Orton-Gillingham method. This approach was based on the idea that individuals with dyslexia had difficulty processing the sounds of words and required a different approach to learning.


In the 1960s and 1970s, the American physician and neurologist Dr. Albert Galaburda conducted research on the brains of individuals with dyslexia. He found that individuals with dyslexia had differences in the way their brains processed language and that these differences could be seen in brain scans.


In the 1980s and 1990s, researchers began to study the genetic basis of dyslexia. They found that dyslexia is often inherited and that it may be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.


Today, dyslexia is recognized as a common learning disorder that affects millions of people around the world. There are many different approaches to treating dyslexia, including the use of specialized reading programs, speech therapy, and assistive technology. Although dyslexia cannot be cured, with the right support and interventions, individuals with dyslexia can learn to read, write, and spell more effectively. Fortunately, there are many resources available to help individuals with dyslexia. Here are some of the best resources for dyslexia:

  • International Dyslexia Association (IDA) - The IDA is a non-profit organization dedicated to helping individuals with dyslexia. Their website offers resources for parents, educators, and individuals with dyslexia. They also offer online courses, webinars, and conferences. Website: https://dyslexiaida.org/

  • Understood - Understood is a website dedicated to helping parents and educators support children with learning and attention issues, including dyslexia. Their website offers a wide range of resources, including articles, videos, and personalized tools. Website: https://www.understood.org/en/learning-thinking-differences

  • Learning Ally - Learning Ally is a non-profit organization that provides audiobooks for individuals with dyslexia and other learning disabilities. Their website offers a wide range of audiobooks for students from K-12 and college. Website: https://learningally.org/

  • The Yale Center for Dyslexia & Creativity - The Yale Center for Dyslexia & Creativity is a research-based organization that aims to improve the lives of individuals with dyslexia. Their website offers resources for educators, researchers, and parents. Website: https://dyslexia.yale.edu/

  • The British Dyslexia Association - The British Dyslexia Association is a charity organization that provides support and resources for individuals with dyslexia in the UK. Their website offers resources for educators, employers, and individuals with dyslexia. Website: https://www.bdadyslexia.org.uk/

  • Dyslexia Help - Dyslexia Help is a website that offers resources for parents, educators, and individuals with dyslexia. They provide a wide range of resources, including webinars, online courses, and personalized help. Website: http://dyslexiahelp.umich.edu/

  • The National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD) - The NCLD is a non-profit organization that aims to improve the lives of individuals with learning disabilities. Their website offers resources for parents, educators, and individuals with dyslexia, including personalized support. Website: https://www.ncld.org/

These are just a few of the many resources available for individuals with dyslexia. It's important to find the right resources that fit your individual needs, and to work with professionals who can provide personalized support.


References

  • Shaywitz, S. E. (2003). Overcoming dyslexia: A new and complete science-based program for reading problems at any level. Knopf.

  • Beaton, A. A. (2012). James Hinshelwood's contribution to the study and treatment of developmental dyslexia: His lasting impact. Dyslexia, 18(4), 204-212.

  • Orton, S. T. (1937). Reading, writing, and speech problems in children. Norton.

  • Galaburda, A. M. (1993). Dyslexia: A neuroanatomical deficit in phonological processing. Journal of Pediatrics, 123(5), S18-S29.

  • Snowling, M. J. (2000). Dyslexia (2nd ed.). Blackwell.

  • International Dyslexia Association. (2021). History of dyslexia. Retrieved from https://dyslexiaida.org/history-of-dyslexia/

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